How to Apply Oil Based Stains
Instructions for woodworking and finishing work on how to use and apply oil based stains and finishes.
¶ The oil stains are usually put on with a flat wall brush four or four and one-half inches wide, and as has been said, it usually is well to let the stain soak in a little and then wipe off all excess in order to make an even coloring.
¶ It is very important to clean the surface until it is free from all grease, glue, lime and dirt. The stain will not penetrate through such accumulations, so a light spot will occur where there is any foreign matter on the surface.
¶ When soft woods are to be stained it is a good practice to coat the wood first with a mixture of one-fourth boiled linseed oil and three-fourths turpentine. Let it dry. That has the effect of equalizing the .suction so that the stain will produce a more even tone.
¶ Oil stains do not spread so well or penetrate so deeply when the stain is cold and when the surface is cold. The stain and surface should be about 70 degrees for best results.
¶ Oil stains containing cheap rosin varnishes, japans or other resinous matter are injured more by the cold than others. When any oil stain is too cold the brush marks, laps and joints are apt to show. Creosote oil is one of the solvents used for stains, especially for shingle stains. It should be free from naphthalene, a solid which remains in solution during the warm weather but crystalizes when cold. It causes many stain troubles on interior work and especially causes exterior shingle stains to fade and spot in a short time.
¶ To secure greater penetration in any oil stain it is well to use from a pint to a quart of benzole to the gallon of stain,90 degree benzole or 160 degree solvent naphtha.
¶ The oil-soluble anilines are soluble in benzole, hot turpentine, xylol, mineral spirits and hot linseed oil. To heat the volatiles place the pot in a pail of hot water, away from the fire. They are, of course, very inflammable. After dissolving the stain colors in hot turpentine, benzole 90 degree, solvent naphtha 160 degree or mineral spirits, the stain may then be thinned with ordinary naphtha or benzine.
¶ The following classification of the volatile spirits used to dissolve oil-soluble anilines, to secure penetration is useful:
¶ '90 degree benzole. Water white. Flash point low. Dangerous near fire especially. Used largely for paint and varnish removers. Fine for washing up after using paint and varnish removers to take off any was left on the surface, before re-varnishing. Straw color benzole. Flash point low. Dangerous near fire. Same uses as 90 degree benzole.
Moderately Fast Evaporation
¶ Commercial toluol. Water white. Low flash point. Dangerous near fire. Straw color commercial toluol. Low flash point. Dangerous near fire.
¶ Solvent naphtha, 160 degree. Water white. Evaporates about as slowly as turpentine and has about the same brushing qualities. Flash point higher. Safer to use. Heavy naphtha. Dark color. High flash point. Safer still.
¶ All of the above volatiles are of the benzole group and all have about the same solvent power and the same odor.
Next Page: Aniline Oil Stain Formulas.
This is How to Apply Oil Based Stains.
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